Contractual workforce in CPSEs crosses pre-pandemic level in FY22

The number of contractual workers hired by the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) crossed the pre-pandemic level in FY22, while regular workers further declined, according to the latest Public Enterprises Survey released on Monday.

According to the Survey, in FY22, the number of contract workers employed by CPSEs increased 9.8 per cent to 524,423. However, the total number of regular workers declined by 1.2 per cent to 8,41,094, continuing with the trend in preceding years.

Casual or daily workers increased 2.4 per cent to 96,690 in FY22. The total number of workers employed by 389 CPSEs increased by 2.7 per cent to 1.46 million in FY22.

In FY22, the most number of employees — about 372,630 — were employed by CPSEs in the coal sector. This was followed by petroleum (refinery and marketing) and heavy and medium engineering at 205,718 and 172,683 respectively.

The least number of workers were employed by agro-based industries and financial services. About 2,381 employees were employed by CPSEs in agro-based industries and 3,234 were employed by financial services CPSEs. Financial services CPSEs do not cover public sector banks.

Employment in CPSEs is categorised as ‘on-roll’ and ‘off-roll’. Managerial staff, supervisory and non-executive employees fall under the on-roll category. Casual and contract workers are classified as ‘off-roll’ staff.

CPSEs saw the share of on-roll or full time employees as a percentage of total employees drop by two percentage points to 58 per cent in FY22. The remaining 42 per cent were off-roll employees.


The highest share of on-roll employees was in trading and marketing, financial services, and power transmission in FY22, the survey said. The share of skilled employees as a percentage of total regular employees stood at 79 per cent or 662,206 in FY22.

CPSEs in transportation, vehicles and equipment, telecommunications and information technology, and power transmission had the highest share of skilled employees. Those in industrial and consumer goods, trading and marketing, and coal had the lowest share of skilled regular employees.

Prime minister Narendra Modi in October announced to hire one million employees by 2023 through the central government ministries and departments.

While handing appointment letters to nearly 75,000 newly inducted at the Rozgar Mela in October, prime minister Modi reiterated the government’s commitment to generate employment and provide youth with an opportunity to fulfil their aspirations. “The Rozgar Mela of today is proof that the central government is working in mission mode to provide employment opportunities to the youth of the country,” PM Modi had said.

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